Mosquitoes have been a threat to human health for centuries, with various species carrying the viruses that cause malaria, filaria, dengue, and other deadly diseases. A new preprint study looks at mosquito bites, using Aedes aegypti as a species and humans as aliens.
Mosquito-borne pathogens have been studied by many researchers around the world. Arboviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, Zika, and measles viruses are very important in terms of their availability, clinical severity, and mortality or teratogenicity. All of this is spread by the Aedes species of mosquito, which is found in abundance in tropical and subtropical regions.
Meanwhile, climate change and urban sprawl have increased the habitat of these animals and also increased the number of people at risk from these mosquitoes. The way it travels is by biting. An infected person begins to transmit the virus to mosquitoes when mosquitoes invade the skin to absorb blood. The virus then replicates in the intestines, spreading beyond these cells, and reaching the intestines of saliva.
After that, a mosquito bites a person who can spread the virus through its saliva. The saliva of these blood-sucking organisms contains a number of bioactive substances, including some that prevent clotting, and others that promote the growth of new blood vessels. In addition, some have immunomodulatory functions.
Over time, the exposure to mosquito saliva, by resisting the bite of these insects, leads to immunomodulation of the antiviral response that occurs in the skin and nearby tissues. The result is disruption of the inflammatory processes, increasing the absorption of other immune cells to the bite site, and elevated autophagy. Neutrophils also enter the burnt area.
Possible side effects include an increase in the viral load in the blood after mosquito bites or a delay in their occurrence as an injectable method compared to other methods, such as injection or non-vector vaccination. In addition, the levels of viral nucleic acid were higher in rat species when mosquito saliva and Semliki Sango infections were introduced.
Such animals showed high levels of genetic mutations in the skin, indicating a high frequency of infection; early circulation to the brain; and increased mortality; vs only infected animals. The current preprint, available on the bioRxiv server, is aimed at monitoring the effects of mosquito bites on the response to disease in humans in these high-velocity velocities, as opposed to areas where mosquitoes are bitten here and there.
The study included 30 healthy people in an area of Cambodia where A. aegypti is widespread. The researchers compared pre-and post-bite immune responses, using skin biopsies, in an attempt to identify the key genes and types of cells that take in these events at different stages of bite.
The results showed that the skin underwent significant clinical changes after being bitten by mosquitoes, especially redness and swelling in the area. The average wheel size was ~ 5 mm at 15 minutes, down to half an hour and forty-eight hours. At this point, the immune cells are attached to the skin.
At the same time, several genes exhibited high regulation and low regulation, with patterns varying over time from the bite, but not significantly different between individuals. Changes went up in 48 hours, with more than 477 genes showing increased speech and ~ 30 lowerings. In total,> 700 genes were controlled.
The changes associated with these genetic mutations were mainly caused by inflammatory changes such as neutrophil degranulation and gamma-interferon signaling, as well as interleukin (IL) -4 and IL-13 signaling, in the first stage. Starting four hours after the bite, this lasted up to 48 hours.
At 4 hours, the extracellular matrix was ruptured, whereas at the last minute, at 48 hours, protective immune responses were present. Neutrophil recruitment at the onset of action was followed by type 1 and type 2T helper cells (Th1 and Th2 cells) and repair mechanisms.
The top genes to be upgraded earlier included KRT6C, CXCL8, TNIP3, IL-20, and IL-1B. These are related to keratinization, neutrophil recruitment, inhibition of NF-kappa-B activation, keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation, respectively. All added by 50-80 times.
Meanwhile, M2 macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) were increased, but natural killer (NK) cells were reduced, indicating immune function.
At 48 hours, the elevated genes were KRT6C, DEFB4A, GZMB, TCL1A, and CCL18, representing keratinization, antimicrobial peptide, granzyme B, T and B cell proliferation, and Th2 cell responses, respectively. During this time, the T cells in the skin have changed, and some CD8 + T cells have become active or weak. In addition, CD4 + T cells were polarized directly to the Th2 / Th17 pair. The mosquito’s saliva was shown to reduce the cytokine response on the skin.
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